The genera Clavaria, Clavulina, Clavulinopsis and Ramariopsis contain species with fleshy fruitbodies up to 10 centimetres long and half a centimetre thick. Common colours are white, yellow, orange and red. The fruitbodies may grow sparsely, gregariously (but clearly as distinct fruitbodies) or in a dense cluster (and it would be easy to mistake such a cluster of separate fruitbodies for a single, branched fruitbody – until you look closely). As a group these fungi are common and easily seen, given the sizes and colours. Some species are recognizable visually but others demand a microscopic study to be sure of an identification.
Geoglossum fruitbodies (known as Earth tongues) are fleshy, black, with a broader apex and may grow to several centimetres tall.
If the fruitbody is black and stiff look for Xylaria in the On wood sub-group (https://canberra.naturemapr.org/Community/Categories/Guide/1730). Species of Xylaria are mostly found obviously on wood but sometimes you find them growing from buried wood.
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